By Frances W. Zweifel
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Additional resources for A Handbook of Biological Illustration
To acco~nplishthis elid, there are several guiding principles that are applicable to all biological illustrations executed in any style or medium. OBSERVATION The most important quality in a scientific artist is well-developed powers of observation. Faulty observation, which leads to faulty illustration, usually is caused either by a lack of understanding of the subject or by "too much" understanding. Happily, the first is often corrected by the attempt to draw the object, which leads to further study and knowledge.
Hot-press (smooth) bristol board, plate-finish drawing paper, and illustration board are all satisfactory. There are newer products in use, such as flexible acetate and polyester sheets, frosted on one side to receive pencil, crayon, or pen. It is advisable to find out what method of printing your illustration will undergo, if possible, since some methods will require your using one ofthese flexible grounds. You should have several straight penholders and a variety of crowquill pen points, a bottle of waterproof black drawing ink, arld a piece of chan~oisor other lint-free cloth for wiping the pen points.
If such marks cannot be erased satisfactorily from line copy, they may bc covered with superwhite gouache paint (see p. 67, Methods of Correcting Mistakes), or with strips of white paper pasted over the area. One way to keep the work free of dirt is to place a clean shcet of paper between the hand and the drawing while working. Some artists wear white cotton gloves with the fingers cut out. Another method is to use a mask: cover the whole drawing surface with a shcet of plain paper and cut a hole in this top sheet just the size of the section you are working on.