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By Richard S. Katz

Political events and elections are the mainsprings of recent democracy. during this vintage quantity, Richard S. Katz explores the matter of the way a given electoral method impacts the function of political events and how within which celebration participants are elected. He develops and exams a conception of the diversities within the harmony, ideological habit, and factor orientation of Western parliamentary events at the foundation of the electoral platforms less than which they compete. a regular within the box of political concept and proposal, The idea of events and the Electoral System contributes to a greater realizing of parliamentary get together constructions and demonstrates the large software of the rationalistic strategy for explaining habit derived from the self-interest of political actors.

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As an empirical matter, these trends ought to be most common in rural and traditionally oriented areas, where localism and personalism are likely to be embedded in the political culture. On the other hand, as the population of a district grows, the proportion of the voters that can be known by a single candidate must shrink, and so this type of appeal must be supplemented with less direct appeals. This difference may be multiplied by its interaction with the number of deputies per district. Assuming that the size of the legislature remains constant, multimember districts can be constructed only by increasing the number of voters in each one.

This allows appeals that will be popular with relatively narrow segments of the electorate, even if the individuals in question are geographically dispersed. In particular, it means that the differences in ideological style that result from PR versus plurality election will be greater for large district PR and small district plurality systems and less for small district PR or multimember plurality schemes. Intraparty Electoral Choice Under some systems, the division of the seats awarded to a party is left entirely to that party's discretion, although that discretion generally must be exercised before the election takes place.

Thus in extensively testing a 35 36 A Theory of Parties and Electoral Systems theory, predictions of fact become hypotheses about tendencies, likelihoods, and proportions. Because of this, and the limited number of cases, the actual hypotheses to be tested differ slightly from those listed at the end of chapter 2, The propositions considered in this chapter are: 1. Parties competing in PR systems will be more likely to be ideological in style than parties competing in plurality systems. 2, Parties competing in small districts will be less issue oriented than parties competing in large districts.

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