By Michael W. Friedlander
Tells the long-running detective tale at the back of the invention and learn of cosmic rays. A topic of his tale is the know-how of detection, for snaring a proton relocating approximately at gentle pace is 'no suggest trick."
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Extra resources for A Thin Cosmic Rain: Particles From Outer Space
The brightness of this scintillation also depends on the ratio Z 2/v 2. The light can be measured electronically by a photomultiplier tube (PMT) which produces a voltage pulse when the scintillation light falls on the tube’s sensitive surface. There is yet another process in which radiation can be produced by fast particles, and it has been used in many experimental situations. In 1934, Paul Êerenkov, in Russia, discovered that light is emitted when an electron travels faster than light in a transparent material.
Great improvements in emulsion sensitivity were achieved after World War II. One application of the photographic method, largely in the biological sciences, has been autoradiography. Tissue samples with radioactive isotope tracers are either held against coated ﬁlms or have liquid photographic emulsion poured over them. Development, after a period of time that depends on the isotope half-life, shows tracks from the tracers that reveal where in the tissue the isotopes have been transported by biological processes.
5 Earth radii (RE) out, but some of these protons can be found as far as 4 RE. At its most intense, there are 2 ϫ 105 particles/cm2sec. 1 MeV), the peak of 2 ϫ 108 /cm2sec is around 3 RE. 5 RE, and electrons can still be found more than twice as far out. 8 shows, the particles are spread around the Earth in a doughnut-shaped region in which the ﬁlling varies in density. In the inner belt, the number of protons peaks at about 15 per cubic meter. A few trapped helium nuclei have also been detected, about one for every 5,000 protons, and a smaller number of oxygen ions with energies up to about 20 keV.