Download AI in the 1980s and Beyond: An MIT Survey by William Eric Leifur Grimson, Ramesh S. Patil PDF

By William Eric Leifur Grimson, Ramesh S. Patil

This number of essays via 12 contributors of the MIT employees, presents an within record at the scope and expectancies of present learn in a single of the world's significant AI facilities. The chapters on synthetic intelligence, professional structures, imaginative and prescient, robotics, and ordinary language offer either a wide review of present parts of task and an review of the sector at a time of serious public curiosity and speedy technological growth. Contents: synthetic Intelligence (Patrick H. Winston and Karen Prendergast). KnowledgeBased structures (Randall Davis). Expert-System instruments and strategies (Peter Szolovits). scientific analysis: Evolution of structures construction services (Ramesh S. Patil). man made Intelligence and software program Engineering (Charles wealthy and Richard C. Waters). clever average Language Processing (Robert C. Berwick). computerized Speech reputation and knowing (Victor W. Zue). robotic Programming and synthetic Intelligence (Tomas Lozano-Perez). robotic arms and Tactile Sensing (John M. Hollerbach). clever imaginative and prescient (Michael Brady). Making Robots See (W. Eric L. Grimson). self sufficient cellular Robots (Rodney A. Brooks). W. Eric L. Grimson, writer of From pictures to Surfaces: A Computational examine of the Human Early imaginative and prescient method (MIT Press 1981), and Ramesh S. Patil are either Assistant Professors within the division of electric Engineering and desktop technological know-how at MIT. AI within the Nineteen Eighties and past is incorporated within the man made Intelligence sequence, edited by way of Patrick H. Winston and Michael Brady.

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The question now is, given the diseases hypothesized, how well does each account for the ob­ served symptoms? That is, suppose we believe for the moment that the patient actually has viral hepatitis. What consequences does this have for the set of observed symptoms? , are there still some "left over"? If so, then we should start the process over again, this time matching the frames against only the "left over" symptoms, to see what else may be present. There may also be "overshoot": are there classic symptoms of viral hepatitis that ought to be present and that don't show up in the current patient?

A design plan for a radio, for example, might decompose the task into designing a power supply, tuner, and audio section, then putting those three together. , power supply, tuner, audio section). This can be quite useful and has provided the basis for some programs with interesting behavior. At their best these programs are capable of proposing designs that are novel in the sense that they involve previously unexamined combinations of library plans. But there are two problems with this. First, there's something missing.

The most important such method matches characteristics of a situation to stored profiles of common situations (often called frames) in order to identify which one best matches the case at hand. In medical diagnosis, for example, situations correspond to diseases and characteristics to the signs, symptoms and laboratory data commonly associated with each disease. General matching methods, pos­ sibly based on additional measures of likelihood or seriousness, can be used to compute the degree of match, and general information-acquisition strategies can determine what additional tests should be performed in or­ der to best differentiate between competing hypotheses.

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